First, soil disinfection. 1, solar thermal disinfection method. Once the greenhouse is built, it is difficult to move, and the continuous cultivation of vegetables is becoming an inevitable trend. It is no secret to protect the cultivation. The use of solar heat for greenhouse high temperature soil disinfection not only has low pollution, no residue, and is effective, but also meets the pollution-free requirements. The specific technical measures are as follows. (1) In the middle of a high-temperature summer season (from July to August in summer), after removing the diseased plant residue after removing the vegetable, if the soil is acidic after cleaning the greenhouse, apply a small amount of lime per acre. Not more than 100 kg, if the soil is alkaline, it needs to be added straw or straw, then deep-flip after adding cow dung. It can be easily fermented and decomposed under the high temperature conditions to increase the organic matter of soil after loosening the straw and straw. It can also make the soil loose and breathable. , improve the physical properties of the soil. And after applying straw and straw, deepen the soil by 50-60 cm, fill it with large water, cover it with waste plastic film, and seal it in the sun for 15-25 days to make the soil temperature within 10 cm. As high as 50-60Â°C, it can effectively prevent soil-borne diseases such as blight, bacterial wilt, and soft rot. At the same time, high temperatures can also kill nematodes and other eggs. If it is sunny or in hot weather, the disinfection effect is better. (2) The use of solar heat for high-temperature soil disinfection has a certain degree of killing effect on various diseases, but from the results of the tests, in general, the effective soil layer using solar heat for soil disinfection is 10-15 cm below the surface, so The vegetables with shallow root distribution in the lower jaw are better for disease prevention. On the other hand, deep-rooted vegetables with a long cultivation period may still be infected because their roots extend deeper into the soil. Therefore, how to use the sunlight to raise the temperature of the ground is a key to maintaining the high ground temperature for a long time. This is related to the covering materials, soil moisture, and soil conditions during disinfection. From the point of view of material selection, the best choice for the use of solar heat for soil disinfection is to use a polyethylene film when covering the film. No matter if it is new or old, as long as the film is not too dirty and the thickness is 0.05 mm, it can achieve the purpose of heat preservation. In addition, we must pay attention to the effect of improving the treatment, not only by increasing the temperature, but also to maintain the soil moisture content as much as 60%, to promote the inactivation of soil bacteria. (3) Even in the high temperature summer season, it is difficult to disinfect the soil where the depth exceeds 10 cm. Therefore, it is better to apply the whole fertilizer as required before the high-temperature soil disinfection in the summer, and if it does not meet this requirement, it will be in the disinfection period. After removing the cover film, the soil should be lightly soiled and mixed with basal fertilizer for sowing or planting. Do not squat or rehabilitate more than 10 centimeters of soil so as not to mix the unsterilized subsoil with the contaminated upper soil, which will reduce the disinfection effect. (4) In addition, after using the summer greenhouses to remove the covered film during the leisure period, only 15-20 cm of the soil is covered in the film and then fully exposed to sunlight, so that the soil temperature reaches 55Â°C or more. After 15 days or more, there are certain The role of eliminating bacteria and harmful eggs. 2, drug sterilization method. During the summer leisure time in the greenhouse, pesticide methods can also be used for soil disinfection. In the case that the cover film is not removed, sterilize the cultivated land or the seedbed soil. First, the soil is loosened and then diluted with 100% formaldehyde in 40% formaldehyde and sprayed on the soil. Then, the sprayed soil is used again. After deep-deepening, the medicine and soil are mixed evenly. All the waste film is covered and the greenhouse is sealed for 4-5 days. Then the film is peeled off and the soil is loosened again. Ventilation is opened and ventilation is carried out. After 15 days, sowing or planting can be performed. Second, greenhouse disinfection. In the summer hot season, during the leisure period, the greenhouse cover film was removed, the garden was thoroughly cleaned, all dead leaves, diseased plant residues were removed, and the skeleton, walls and soil of the entire greenhouse were exposed to light, using solar ultraviolet light. Disinfection. One week before the preparation of the autumn and winter vegetable nursery, the greenhouse space and tools can be disinfected by sulphur powder fumigation. The specific method is to mix 1,000 grams of sulphur powder per acre with sawdust, and mix it in various points in the greenhouse. We put the farm tool poles etc. into the greenhouse. After dark fire lit closed greenhouse fumigation 12 hours. Or use 45% chlorothalonil aerosol per 1000 grams of fumigation greenhouse, after fumigation still closed the greenhouse 7-10 days disinfection and sterilization, 1-2 days before planting or sowing, open vent ventilation. For example, if 200-250 g of fumigation per mu is used, it can be divided into three times before greenhouse sowing. Each time interval is 1 week. In addition, 300-500 times of formalin can be used to disinfect the wall skeleton and all parts and corners of the greenhouse. After 7 days of spraying, the vents are opened for ventilation and can be used after 15 days. Third, the seed disinfection. Before sowing, any kind of vegetable seeds must be sterilized by soaking, disinfected by drugs or dry-heat-disinfected. By these measures, the bacteria attached to the seed surface are killed. The use of dry heat sterilization method to disinfect the seed is the best way to eliminate the species of leprosiae, then use the summer hot season to fully dry the seeds, it is also a kind of dry heat disinfection. The specific approach is: as the autumn and winter wolfberry cultivated vegetables need to be 3-5 days before sowing in the hot season, select the sunny day, the seeds will be spread in the greenhouse in a clean sowing pot or paper basin, in high temperature conditions for 2-3 days The full drying, the place where conditions can also be fully dried after the seeds into the incubator and then dry heat disinfection, to eliminate the seeds of the epidermis of bacteria, viruses, experiments show that after sowing seeds of cucumber after treatment of green flowers Leaf virus can be completely eliminated, and it has control effects on anthracnose, bacterial leaf spot, blight, and black spot. At the same time dry heat treatment can also promote seed germination and decomposition and volatilization of toxic substances, improve seed water absorption and resistance, and help increase production.
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