Cucumber has many diseases and pests, especially in protected land cultivation. The most suitable environmental conditions for cucumber growth and development are also suitable for a variety of diseases and pests. This has become a major constraint to the development of cucumber cultivation, with large doses, many laborers, and some The cost of cucumber light pesticides in one mu of land is 800-1000 yuan, the economic benefits are declining, and the pesticide residue exceeds the standard and endangers human health. After China's accession to the WTO, China's agricultural production must be in line with international standards. Otherwise, products cannot be exported, and supermarkets cannot enter the country. This requires us to develop pollution-free green foods. In the prevention and control of cucumber diseases and insect pests, we should try our best not to use pesticides, use less pesticides, and use highly-efficient, low-toxicity, low-residue pesticides. The general principle is to implement the plant protection policy of "prevention first, comprehensive prevention and control" and adhere to the comprehensive prevention and control technology based on "agricultural prevention and control, giving priority to biological control, physical control, and scientific use of chemical control." 1. Agricultural prevention and control adopts reasonable agricultural technical measures to lay the foundation for pollution-free cultivation. For example, the selection of disease-resistant pests and seeds, seed soaking and disinfection, cultivation of disease-free strong seedlings, clean up the pasture to reduce the disease source, implement crop rotation change, and change the soil, Reasonable fertilizer and water management, timely plant adjustment and adoption of grafted seedlings and other agricultural technical measures to prevent the occurrence and spread of diseases. 2. Biological control Biological control is the use of pest natural natural enemies, biological fertilizers, biological bactericidal and biological pesticides to achieve the purpose of pest control, such as the use of parasitic natural enemy ivory bees to control greenhouse whitefly; use of seven-spot ladybug, Grass barnyard grasshoppers control aphids, leafhoppers, spider mites and whitefly. Biologics can help the growth and development of pests and metabolism. Although they are slow, they are safe for crops, humans and animals. Using avermectin biopesticides to control cockroaches, Liriomyza sativae, and root-knot nematodes; spraying agricultural streptomycin to control bacterial diseases; and using antibiotics 120 and polyoxin to control powdery mildew, with 2% Wuyimycin prevention and treatment of gray mold and powdery mildew, etc., are effective pollution-free methods of prevention and control. 3. Ecological prevention and cure Practice has proved that low temperature and high humidity are the main ecological conditions for the occurrence of fungal diseases such as powdery mildew, downy mildew, and gray mold. The condition of water film on the leaves, the temperature is 15-20 Â°C, and the relative humidity of the air is More than 85% is the ecological environment conditions in which the above diseases have spread. Therefore, in the management of greenhouses, artificially adjust the temperature and humidity to reduce the occurrence of diseases. The method is based on the outdoor temperature in the morning and the temperature and humidity in the shed indoors, release the air for 0.5-1 hours, and then close the greenhouse to raise the temperature to 28-30Â°C. This will prevent the occurrence of diseases and facilitate the photosynthesis of cucumbers. In the afternoon, the temperature was adjusted to about 22Â°C and the humidity was 70% or more. Even though the humidity increased at night, the temperature dropped to 10-13Â°C, which also restricted the germination of the pathogenic spores. According to the characteristics of most fungi, they can also spray 500 times of baking soda on the leaves, once in three days, and spray 5-6 times, which has special effects on powdery mildew. High-temperature stuffy shed is also one of the effective ways to prevent downy mildew. The method is: after the end of March, select the sunny day and pour water first to increase the humidity of the air to prevent burns on the steamed bread. Hang 2-3 thermometers, and then seal the shed to increase the temperature rapidly. Observe the temperature every 10 minutes. When the temperature of the shed reaches 45-46Â°C, keep it for two hours and kill the downy mildew in the shed. dead. Then slowly open the skylight to cool, so that the plant returned to normal growth. After boring once every 4 days, you can improve the control effect. The occurrence of downy mildew is based on the relevant tests, using 1 kg of urea, 1 kg of sugar, and 100 kg of water. During the period of cucumber growth, spray once every 5 days, and pay attention to spraying on the bottom of the leaves in the morning, using absorption and control effects. Up to 90% or more. 4. Physical control The use of locusts, whiteflies and Liriomyza sativae has a strong tropism towards yellow, and a yellow oil-coated yellow insect trap is hung in the shed every 10 meters or so to lure the adults into the net and open the cucumbers. Covering with insect nets is also an important measure for the cultivation of vegetables without pollution. "Ozone" is the ideal means to prevent and control pests and diseases that are emerging today. Ozone is a triatomic oxygen. O3 is named for its odor after lightning. It is a strong oxidant. O3 has been recognized as a broad spectrum. Antimicrobial anti-virus agents have a wide range of anti-virus agents. They can kill all pathogenic viruses. Their preventive mechanism is to directly destroy RNA or DNA nucleic acids. It is also a diffuse gas. There is no dead space in the shed, no pollution and no residue. The bactericidal capacity of O3 is twice that of chlorine. The sterilization speed is 300-600 times that of chlorine, 3,000 times that of ultraviolet, when ozone is dissolved in water. The spraying of vegetables has a stronger and faster bactericidal effect. Ozone has been identified by research institutes as a clean oxidant with high efficiency and no secondary pollution. Ozone generators have been produced in a number of productions. They can be applied in greenhouses such as cantaloupe, tomatoes, and peppers. They can save more than 90% of pesticides and can be used in cucumber greenhouses. The control effect is over 75%. It saves labor and money, and has a high rate of results and early maturation. Increase production by 20-30% and save 90% of funds. The ozone machine uses air as raw material. After 10 minutes, the greenhouse can be filled with enough sterilized and insecticidal ozone, so that the greenhouse can be used for pest control without or with less pesticides. About half an hour later Ozone is reduced to oxygen, which provides another new technology for the development of green food production. 5. Chemical control pollution-free Not all chemical pesticides are harmful, the key is to use pesticides and scientific application of pesticides, the state has prohibited the use of highly toxic and high residual pesticides in cucumbers, so we should try to use some low toxicity and low residual biological pesticides. To improve the quality of cucumbers and protect people's health. (Harbin Municipal Academy of Agricultural Sciences Song Xiaohui)
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