Science and agriculture work together

AFIC Review Article Introduction It is estimated that by 2033, the world population will double. By 2010, the demand for food in Asia will exceed supply, which poses a huge challenge to agriculture. Traditional farming equipment and methods have reached the limit in increasing agricultural output. As countries develop, people also need more and better food. The sharp decline in arable land, the increase in labor costs, and the shortage of agricultural workers are all the more serious. Food biotechnology (genetic modification technology) provides a new method for promoting the sustainable development of existing cultivated land and improving the quality of food supply. The potential benefits of biotechnology are numerous: control crop pests, increase crop yields, and reduce the use of pesticides. Using biotechnology to treat food and food ingredients provides us with a wide range of fermented foods and food ingredients. What is food biotechnology? In the broadest sense, food biotechnology has emerged a few years ago. The primitive people went from hunting, collecting food to farming. For millennia, people have chosen, sown, and harvested seeds to produce enough food to sustain their lives and cultivate the desired characteristics such as better taste, brighter colors, and firmer plants. At the beginning of this century, the farmers carefully selected the plants with beneficial characteristics and began to crossbreed them to produce new varieties and hybrid crops—new plants with the qualities obtained from the parents. They produced some traditional food ingredients such as yogurt, vinegar, rice wine, soy sauce and Indonesian soybean meal. Although early farmers did not understand the scientific principles, they had used biotechnology for hundreds of years to produce or improve plants and foods. Now scientists understand the nature of these biological processes and find new ways to improve them. Modern biotechnology will enable scientists to make better crops and foods produced using traditional methods. In most cases, the new method is faster, cheaper, and more reliable than the traditional method. Sometimes, modern biotechnology can create products that have never before been available. Benefits of biotechnology Biotechnology has bright prospects in medicine, environmental governance, food production and agriculture. Pharmaceuticals - A large number of drugs based on biotechnology are now used to treat diseases. For example, insulin is used to treat glycodiases and growth hormone is used to treat abnormal growth and accelerate wound healing. Biotechnology offers new methods for producing vaccines that prevent diseases such as hepatitis B, helping to determine and diagnose viral diseases, and genetic disorders. Environmental Governance - Biotechnology provides opportunities to protect the environment. For example, genetically modified bacteria can be used to convert organic waste into useful products or clean oil spills. Food production ---- Food production is another area in which biotechnology has shown itself. It can standardize the production of large quantities of ingredients, vitamins, start-ups and enzymes needed for food production. Agriculture ---- Today, scientists can make apples and vegetables look better, prolong their storage time, strengthen nutrients in plants and foods, and produce crops that are resistant to diseases and pests. Biotech experts hope that in the future they will be able to produce plants that resist adverse weather conditions, such as drought, heat, and cold, so farmers can cultivate land that is not currently cultivated. Micropropagation technology - plants that grow from single cells or parts of plants - have been used for plant propagation to rapidly increase the number of the same plants. The use of genetic technology to change ornamental plants has been widely adopted in Asia to develop plants with unusual color to increase variety and commercial value. Understanding Genetics and Biotechnology The main goal of modern biotechnology is to enable a living cell to perform a specific task in a predictable, controlled manner. The task may be to ferment soy sauce to produce soy sauce, or to produce a plant that produces higher or more resistant pests. Whether or not a living cell can fulfill its task depends on its genetic composition, which is the instructions included in the chemical information group found in its gene. These genes are transmitted from generation to generation, so descendants inherit some individual characteristics from their parents. In 1953, scientists discovered that DNA existed in all of their lives, and that a gene was part of a compound that had a fixed sequence or coded DNA. This code determines different characteristics, such as the color of the eyes or hair. In 1973, scientists found ways to isolate genes. In the 1980s, they had developed the necessary tools to move from one organism to another. By finding an enzyme that can be used to detach a gene from a DNA strand in a specific place, scientists can implant new instructions that allow the cell to produce the desired protein, complete a useful process, or give the organism some desired feature. This technique is called recombinant DNA (rDNA). The result is the science of modern biotechnology—the transfer of a particular gene command from one cell to another. In addition to transferring genes between species, crops can no longer have that feature by removing genes with unwanted characteristics. For example, this technique has been used to remove genes that cause softening in tomatoes. In the future, proteins that cause allergic reactions may be removed from foods such as peanuts and milk. Plant biotechnology has many limitations with traditional plant propagation techniques that use controlled pollination. First, sexual hybridization can only occur between species of the same or related species. This limits the sources of genes that people use to enhance certain desirable characteristics. Second, when two plants are crossed, each has about 100 000 genes, and all the genes of the two plants are piled together. This may lead to the problem that the offspring plants inherit both the desired characteristics and unintended features from the previous generation. Therefore, breeders must spend years back and forth over and over again, then sift through tens of thousands of unwanted genes. Traditional breeding methods take time, sometimes as long as 12 years. Plant biotechnology is an extension of traditional cultivation techniques, but there are major differences. Instead of mixing tens of thousands of genes to improve crops, modern breeders use biotechnology to select a particular plant, microbial, or animal gene and then implant it in the genetic code of another plant. This is possible because all organisms have similarities in DNA. After gene transfer, the altered new plant shows only specific changes, unlike large changes caused by traditional methods of reproduction. The application of plant biotechnology The pest control of pest-resistant plant crops is a major issue for farmers. In order to eliminate crop pests, farmers often spray insecticides. These insecticides are easily degraded by sunlight and washed away by rain. There are many limitations. By implanting specific genes into the genome of plants, plants can continuously produce proteins and control insect pests. This built-in protection method provides farmers with a substitute for pesticides. When the use of combined insecticides is reduced, beneficial insects can survive and thus help control pests. Other Potential Benefits of Insect-Resistant Plants: Maintaining and Improving Crop Yields Reduce Farmers' Access to Combining Pesticides Reduce Pesticides Entering Groundwater Reduce Mycotoxins Induced by Insect Transfer Herbicide Tolerant Plants Weeds compete with crops for rain and nutrition , sunshine and space. They also breed pests and diseases, reduce the quality of crops, and their seeds are also mixed with grains when harvesting crops. Farmers use weeds, herbicides, or a variety of methods to remove weeds. Turning the land will subject the surface of the useful soil to wind and rain, with serious long-term consequences for the environment. Environmentally aware farmers are trying to reduce the number of trips and reduce the use of pesticides. By implanting a gene that is resistant to certain herbicides in plants, farmers can control the growth of weeds by spraying very little herbicide onto the crop without harming the crop. This technique allows farmers to use herbicides only when they need to eradicate the grass. This approach is consistent with a comprehensive view of pest management. It can also increase the use of herbicides that are beneficial to the environment and reduce the amount of land that can be used. Disease-resistant plant plants suffer from diseases such as fungal diseases and viral diseases, and the yield and quality of harvesting are greatly reduced. In order to minimize the economic losses caused by plant diseases, farmers often rely on planting more plants as a solution. However, this increased costs and caused a waste of fuel, water, and fertilizer. In addition, farmers must use insecticides to kill disease-carrying pests such as locusts. Researchers are working on the development of crop plants that can prevent a certain number of plant viruses. Scientists have developed a built-in virus that is immune to specific viral diseases by implanting a small amount of DNA into the genetic makeup of plants. Force crops. This will reduce the investment in combined insecticides and increase the yield and quality of crops. These improvements in crops can help provide adequate food and protect the environment. The development of stronger crops can increase the yield of those places that are too harsh for traditional crops. Increasing the nutrient content of crops that serve as staple foods helps people in some areas to obtain more nutrition without having to change dietary structures too much. Food and Crop Quality Improvement Since ancient times, farmers have sought ways to increase the yield and quality of food crops through plant selection and crossbreeding. Changing the genetic composition by implanting one or more genes can produce beneficial changes in the crop. For example: Continuous production of high-yield palms with increased solids in potatoes and tomatoes is more conducive to food processing with more nutrients such as cucurbits from VA, VC and VE, potatoes with more amino acids, corn and soyabeans with more amino acids Rapeseed with lower saturated fat content contain garlic fruit with more allicin. Allicin, an active ingredient, is currently being studied for its potential to help reduce cholesterol. With more natural agents in strawberries, people are investigating the role of natural agents in the treatment of cancer. Late-maturing tomatoes, peppers and tropical fruits are better. The storage capacity and taste of crops that can grow at very low temperatures include protein. More animal feed crops Biotechnology and fermentation biotechnology play a major role in the production of a variety of fermented foods commonly used in Asian diets. Traditional foods such as soy sauce, Indonesian soybean meal (fermented soybeans), belacan (shrimp paste), cincaluk (fermented shrimp), budu (fermented fish paste), tapai (fermented rice/tapioca), dadih (fermented milk), Kimchi, vinegar, bread, yogurt and cheese are all products that have been fermented. A large number of additives, preservatives and supplements are also fermented by microorganisms, such as vitamins, orange acids, natural colorings, flavorings, chewing gums and enzymes. Modern biotechnology is increasingly used in fermentation processes. Genetically modified microorganisms and enzymes have been used for decades, bringing desirable changes to food and salting. One of the most promising results of using modern biotechnology is the use of microorganisms to produce a variety of food enzymes. There are food biotechnology that can produce a large number of more pure, more targeted enzymes. These enzymes enable the food to undergo predetermined changes quickly and at relatively low temperatures, thereby reducing the need for raw materials and fuel. Biotechnology and food safety The safety of foods is to ensure that when people use or access it correctly, food will not be harmful to humans. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the UN's World Health Organization (WHO) promote the concept of essential equality as the most practical assessment. Methods for the safety of food and food ingredients produced through modern biotechnology. This method states that if a new food or food ingredient is essentially the same as the existing food or food ingredient, then its safety should be the same as the contrast. Researchers must prepare comprehensive data to support the safety and health of new crop varieties produced by biotechnology. This process requires years of laboratory and field field testing before products can enter the market. Plant safety assessment Traditional propagation techniques have been used for centuries to genetically alter plant characteristics. In the traditional breeding process, the products with the desired characteristics or the protein expression products of these genes are not completely described. It is much more accurate to implant a gene through the genetic modification program because the implanted gene can be obtained from almost any source, not only from the sexually friendly relatives of the food crop. It is for this reason that regulatory agencies need more security-related materials than new varieties developed using traditional breeding techniques. In order to provide the same security assurances as the production of food using biotechnology and traditional methods of reproduction, this safety assessment involves several key steps. These steps include molecular characterization of genetic changes, description of agricultural traits, nutritional assessments, toxicity assessments, and safety assessments. The overall goal of these tests is to determine whether plants are equal in nature (in terms of chemical, nutritional composition and characteristics) with traditional foods that have a history of safe use. Essentially equal evaluation is concerned with the product rather than the process of manufacturing the product. If the new product is substantially equivalent to a traditional food or feed, the product is considered as safe as its traditional counterpart. If foods produced using biotechnology contain new features that are not essentially equivalent, such as higher vitamin content, the assessment focuses on demonstrating the safety of the new features. Safety Evaluation Strategy Molecular Description - For the use of food biotechnology to produce new plant species, it should first indicate the gene source into which it is introduced. Describe the transformation system that inserts genes into the genome of a plant, and determine the number of copies of inserted genes, the integrity, and the stability of gene insertion. Agricultural characteristics - usually it is the starting point for evaluating the equality of nature. In potato cases, the characteristics that are usually detected are yield, size and distribution, dry cargo content, and disease resistance. Nutritional assessment ---- involves key nutrients such as fats, proteins, carbohydrates, essential minerals and vitamins. Identifying the critical nutrients to be measured can be partly understood from the functional and performance products of the implanted gene. If an implanted gene represents an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of amino acids, then the amino acid profile should be determined. Toxicity Assessment - Toxins and anti-nutrients are compounds that are genetically inherited in certain plant species. If they are significantly increased, such as solanie glycalkaloid in potatoes or trypsin inhibitor in soybeans, it has an impact on health. Comparing the nutrient content of genetically modified crops with traditional varieties under comparable environmental and agricultural conditions. Safety Assessment - When genetically modified food crops show substantial parity with traditional crops, safety assessments focus on the introduced characteristics and protein expression of the cloned genes. The biological function targeting and mode of action of the protein determines this critical assessment result. If the protein is an enzyme, its potential effect on the endogenous content of metabolic pathways and metabolites must be determined. The amino acid sequence of the protein is compared with known sequences to determine if the sequence of the protein is the same as that found in the protein of the food, toxin or allergen. The genetic digestibility of this protein must also be determined to determine the degree of protein expression in the food. This assessment may be used for appropriate agricultural raw products or certain processed food ingredients such as edible oils. Specific criteria have also been established to determine if the introduced protein is as safe as the protein already present in the food. When assessing the case, additional tests may be conducted. The rat feed study can determine toxin and nutrient endpoints to determine the extent of the effects of antinutrients and compare them with human potential exposure to determine if there are sufficient safety margins. A small percentage (1-2%) of allergic adults respond to food allergies. This is caused by an immune reaction to foods such as eggs, milk, fish, jellyfish, peanuts, soybeans, wheat, and nuts. All food allergies are proteins in nature, but most proteins do not cause allergies in adults or children. Domestically and internationally, strict and comprehensive standards have been established. Before approving use, determine whether all foods induce allergic reactions. For those foods produced using modern biotechnology, authoritative organizations such as WHO, FAO, and the US Food and Drug Administration have set specific guidelines for their safety. Early detection of allergenic substances reproduces the characteristic description of the protein produced by the implanted new gene during genetic modification. The source of the protein, the history of safe use, the function of the gene/protein, the digestibility, and the stability during heating and other processes are all compared to the known allergenic proteins. Any potential safety issues should be noted to decide whether to continue to develop a product. If a certain characteristic is considered to be a key factor in ensuring food supply, and the protein is found to be allergic, it is usually decided to look for alternative genes. Based on more than a decade of testing, it is now safe to determine whether a protein can cause allergies. Some of the key principles emphasize the selection and allergy testing of genetically modified crops. They are: Avoiding the transfer of human known allergens Hypothetically, genes derived from allergens encode allergens unless there is evidence that all introduced proteins are not tested for allergy. The validity of this test model is to detect Brazil nuts. 25 Confirmed when storing protein. This protein was implanted into soybeans to increase the sulfur amino acid content of soybeans, which in turn increased its nutritional value. A small number of individuals allergic to Brazil nuts were tested to see if their blood samples reacted with Brazil Nut 25 to store protein. Eight of the nine testers had blood samples that reacted with this protein. As a result, the development line was stopped. Biotechnology and Environmental Safety Although the results from field trials have so far not shown any adverse environmental impact, there are the following environmental concerns associated with the use of plant biotechnology: Herbicide-tolerant crops may spread Its intrinsic resistance to weeds may produce resistance to insect repellent plants. Antiviral plants may make the genetic material of crops mixed with the genetic material of natural viruses Antibiotic markers (genes used to indicate metastasis) May have antibiotics Resistance is transmitted to other plants, animals, and humans. In these areas, extensive research has been conducted and continued. Biotechnology regulations require that extensive laboratory and field testing must be performed under strict control conditions before commercialization is promoted to ensure the safety and stability of plants that are altered through biotechnology. Researchers are measuring and monitoring each newly developed plant on a case-by-case basis to ensure safety. Pest-resistant plant breeders and farmers have for many years selected plants that are either insect-resistant or not afraid of pests. This tolerance or immunity is actually due to the ability to control certain cellular phenomena, such as the production of substances that are toxic to insect fungi, bacteria or viruses. At present, the varieties of modern agricultural crops grown by farmers all over the world contain genes that make plants resistant to pests. Another way to control pests is to spray chemical pesticides. One of the most widely used biotech uses is to improve plants and make them resistant to diseases and insect pests. Examples include Bt. crops (which prevent many species of borers against plant stems) and anti-virus crops. This pest resistance helps reduce or eliminate the need for pesticides. Due to the natural selection in the pest population, some pests eventually endure herbicides or insecticides. For genetically modified crops, resistance may be developed to the built-in resistance of the crop. Many methods for delaying the development of pest resistance rely on reducing the selection pressure of pests during evolution. The method often used by farmers who have genetically modified crops is to set a certain percentage of farmland to grow non-genetically modified crops. As a result, not all pests are killed. The accumulation of several genes in one crop variety is another approach because pests have evolved to be extremely difficult to overcome more complex forms of resistance. The monitoring plan is an important part of the resistance governance strategy. Antibiotic-resistant antibiotics are compounds that kill harmful bacteria. Most of them are natural substances that bacteria/molds produce when struggling to survive. In essence, bacteria are resistant to antibiotics produced by other bacteria and survive its harmful effects. This resistance is very targeted and is controlled by antibiotic genes. In biotechnology, genes that are resistant to antibiotics are used to make plant tissue that is resistant to certain antibiotics so that the tissue can be clearly identified. This kind of organization usually contains some predictable useful features. For example, in the course of research and development, by linking with a certain antibiotic resistance gene, it is possible to distinguish plant tissues containing genes that can make plants produce more vitamins. When a group of tissue cells is exposed to a specific antibiotic, those cells that contain antibiotic resistance genes can be identified. Genetically modified plants usually contain genes that are resistant to antibiotics to confirm the presence of the predicted characteristic gene. However, these plants do not contain antibiotics and they do not produce any antibiotics. Therefore, foods made from genetically modified crops do not contain antibiotics. Some people worry that the use of anti-antibiotic marker genes will lead to increased antibiotic resistance of naturally occurring bacteria. Some people worry that there will be no medicines that can effectively combat certain harmful bacteria in the future. In fact, 20-40% of bacteria contain antibiotic resistance, otherwise they cannot compete with other bacteria. Similarly, two marker genes used in biotechnology are resistant to very ancient antibiotics that have never been used for human health treatment. Scientists chose these antibiotics precisely because they are extremely unlikely to be used for treatment and there are new, effective antibiotics. Anti-antibiotic genes work by protecting proteins in plants from the effects of certain antibiotics. Research shows that these proteins break down after a few seconds of intake. And there is no allergic or toxic effect on humans or animals. In biotechnology, the implanted plant tissue is not an antibiotic, but a gene that is resistant to antibiotics. In nature, this gene has never returned from the plants and returned to the bacteria. Many international organizations, such as the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), WHO and FAO have confirmed their safety after years of comprehensive testing. However, given people’s concern about the spread of antibiotic resistance of the bacterial population, scientists in several countries are working to identify new marker genes and are working hard to remove the antibiotic resistance genes in current products. Protecting the environment Even with the best conditions, food production can put pressure on the environment: Corrosion of useful topsoil, agrochemicals sometimes contaminate surface waters or rivers, livestock eat bald ranches and forests are used as arable land. Sustainable farming techniques, such as crop cultivation, cultivation and adoption of high-yield crop varieties, make the most efficient use of available resources. These technologies are crucial to maximize production. These practices promote the natural recycling of organic matter that can be recycled, protect the environment, conserve resources, and ensure food safety. At the same time, farmers can continue to live. Biotechnology has great potential in this area. For example, agricultural biotechnology has enabled farmers to obtain the same or even higher yields than ever before with less land, fertilizer, combined pesticides, and herbicides. Breeders are also developing their own nitrogen-enhanced plants. In the future, farmers can reduce the use of synthetic fertilizers, thus reducing the degradation of soil and groundwater. It also increases the food production of countries where farmers cannot afford nitrogen. Modern biotechnology also has a lot to do in other areas: Forestry - Genetic changes can help restore forests damaged by poor agricultural practices. New technologies have shortened the breeding cycle and increased the yield of some trees, such as rubber, cocoa, teak, and pulp trees. In addition, biotechnology helps protect forests by preventing tree pests and increasing yields. It also helps to identify genes that produce medicinal compounds found in plants, and then it is easier to use microorganisms to produce these compounds in large quantities by fermentation. Plant biodiversity - genetic changes help protect endangered plants to increase plant diversity. Increases the genetic collocations of staple food crops by implanting predictive features. The use of biotechnology to promote agricultural production can reduce the area of ​​land reclamation and therefore also reduce the pressure on species that are already at risk of extinction. The labelling of foods produced using biotechnology illustrates that more and more consumers are demanding accurate and useful information on the foods they purchase. Providing this information allows consumers to trust food quality and safety more. Food safety is of primary importance to producers, consumers, governments and regulators. Once food safety and quality are established, it is necessary to provide consumers with useful and accurate information. In countries such as the U.S. and Canada, laws stipulate that food labels must convey information related to health and safety. Essentially equal crops and foods produced by biotechnology do not require labeling because they are literally It will not cause health or safety problems. That is, the labeling requirements requested by the United States and Canada are based on the health, safety and nutritional assessment of the ultimate product. The United States and Canada recognize the views of WHO, FAO, and OECD scientists: The use of biotechnology alone does not cause health, safety, or nutritional problems. The general principle is that if a new plant or food produced using biotechnology is not substantially equivalent to traditional plants and food, a labeling statement must be made to alert consumers to these changes. Changes may be affirmed, such as increased vitamin levels, may also be negative, such as the emergence of new allergies. The most fierce debate in the world is whether or not plants and food that have not caused any change in safety and nutritional value through biotechnology should also be marked. In other words, if maize changes to produce an insect-resistant protein that does not affect the safety and nutrition of corn, then it is necessary to mark the corn or the food made from it. ? In the discussion of all labeling issues, it is necessary to recognize the two principles. First, the market must comply with domestic and international safety standards, regardless of whether biotechnology is involved, and food and feed are open. Second, for most commodity crops, the supply channels, such as segregation, will be expensive, and this cost must be borne by consumers. In Europe, the European Union has enacted legislation requiring all crops and food products that utilize biotechnology to be marked on the label, whether or not they are essentially equal. This approach is considered to satisfy the rights of consumers because they have the right to know whether they have purchased a biotech product, rather than considering that they consider health and safety issues. Numerous technical problems have made the EU’s attempt to create an annotation system more complex. For example, what should the standard be based on: the presence of altered DNA, or the presence of the protein it produces, or both? This problem is compounded by the technical state of assaying DNA and proteins. Protein measurement technology can accurately identify its presence and extent. In most cases, protein analysis can be performed using a simple kit. However, DNA testing is much more complicated and expensive. Although analytical techniques can measure very small amounts of DNA, they can also produce spurious results and often cannot determine how much DNA is in the sample. In Japan, those products that are essentially equivalent to those created by biotechnology need to be labeled. However, no testing of protein or DNA is required. The processed varieties without DNA or protein are listed. Foods containing these varieties, such as rapeseed oil and alcoholic beverages, do not need to be marked. For foods containing crops or varieties that require labelling, manufacturers can indicate, for example, soybeans (genetically modified, non-isolated). Food processors do not have to test/ensure that the ingredients have altered DNA/protein, but only indicate that they have not done so to isolate and provide non-genetically modified ingredients. In the Japanese system, only those weights are in the top three rankings for the weight of all ingredients in a food, and more than 5% of the ingredients are considered to be marked on the label. The manufacturer can also state on the label that the genetically modified ingredient has been approved by the government. Another approach discussed by some countries is the proposal to allow the labeling of non-genetically modified organism foods on a voluntary basis, assuming that the argument is confirmed, and that there is no misleading argument for health and safety. References: 1. Astwood, JD and Fuchs, RL 1996. Allergenicity of foods derived from transgenic plants. Monogr. Allergy 32:105-120 2. Borlaug, NE and Doswell. C. 1999. Food security in Asia: Vision for research and development. Paper presented at Annual Meeting, Asian Development Bank, April 29 1999, Manila, Philippines. Food Security in Asia: R&D perspective 3. Boulter, D. 1997. Scientific and public perception of plant genetic manipulation. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 16(3:231-251) 4. Drogen, M., Puhler, A. and Selbitschka, W. 1998. Horizontal gene transfer as a biosafety issue : a natural phenomenon of public concern. J. Biotechnology 64:75-90 5. FAO/WHO. 1997. Biotechnology and Food Safety. Food and Nutrition Paper No. 61.34 pp. FAO: Rome 6. Gould, F. 1998. Sustainability of transgenic insecticidal cultivars: mosaic pest genetics and ecology. Annual Review of Entomology 43:701-726 7. Hefle, S., Nordlee, JA and Taylor, SL 1996, Allergenic foods. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 36(S):S69-89. James, C. 1998. Global Status of Transgenic Crops in 1998. ISAAA Briefs no. 8. ISAAA, Ithaca, New York. 41 pp. 9. Karenlampi, S. 1996. Health Effects of Marker Genes in Geneticallly-engineered Food Plants. Temanord 1996: 530. 71 pp. Nordic Council of Ministers: Copenhagen. Kendall, HW, Beachy, R., Eisner, T., Gould, F., Herdt, R., Raven, P., Schell, JS and Swaminathan, MS 1997. Bioengineering of crops. Report of the World Bank Panel on Transgenic Crops, ESDS Monograph Series: 23. World Band, Washington DC 30 pp. 11. Metcalfe, DD, Astwood, JD, Townsend, R., Sampson, AA, Taylor, SL and Fuchs, RL. 1996. Assessment of the allergenic potential of foods derived from genetically engineered crop plants. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 36 ( S): S165-S186. National Research Council (NRC) 1989. Field Testing of Genetically Modifed Organiss: Framework for Decision Making. National Academy Press: Washington DC 13. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 1996. Food Safety Evaluation. OECD: Paris. 14. Sachs, J. 1999. Helping the worlds poorest. The Economist, August 14-20 1999: 17-20 15. Serageldin, I. 1999. Biotechnology and Food Security in the 21st Century. Science 285: 5426.21 16. World Health Organization (WHO). 1995. Application of the principles of substantial equivalence to the safety and evaluation of foods and food components from plants derived by modern biotechnology. 21 pp. WHO.


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