Ostrich breeding reference

First, the development of ostrich farming Overview Ostrich (Ostrich) is native to Africa, is the world's largest existing herbivorous poultry, can not fly, but good at running. Adult ostriches weigh approximately 120-150 kilograms and have a height of 1.75-2.75 meters. The ostrich grows quickly and the one-year-old bird weighs more than 100 kilograms. In general, ostriches reach sexual maturity at about 2 years of age. Feeding a good 1.5-year-old can lay eggs, and ostriches have a strong reproductive life. A female bird produces about 80 eggs a year. Can continue to reproduce until about 40 years old. The average life span of an ostrich is 70 years old. Ostriches have long lifespan, strong fertility, fast growth, resistance to roughage, drought resistance, strong disease resistance, and wide adaptability. Ostrich meat is a high-protein (containing 21 essential amino acids), low-fat, low-cholesterol, low-energy, fresh taste of red meat, is an ideal human health food. Ostrich skin has the characteristics of softness, tenacity, good air permeability and beautiful patterns formed by its hair roots. It is a high-quality raw material for the production of high-grade clothing, clothing, shoes, and bags. Its price is higher than that of crocodile skin, and its supply in the international market is in short supply. Emu Oil has a high pharmaceutical value and can produce high-end cosmetics and excellent pharmaceutical products. Ostrich eggs, hairs and bones can be made into products such as crafts, light industry, etc. It can be said that the ostrich's whole body is a treasure.
Ostrich has 150 years of domestication history. As early as the end of the 19th century, South Africa had started raising ostriches. At that time, it mainly used its hair as a luxury clothing accessory. Ostrich feathers were once the main export goods of South Africa after gold, diamonds and wool. In the past 10 years, due to the advancement of science and technology, the development of social economy, and the improvement of people’s lives, the quality requirements for meat products have become higher and higher. The ostrich's unique biological characteristics, excellent production traits, high economic value and social value are gradually recognized and accepted by people. The ostrich breeding industry has begun to flourish. South Africa currently has more than 100,000 bird species and about 1.5 million birds. There are 6 meat processing plants and 5 tanneries. Some developed countries in Europe and the United States, such as the United States, Canada, Britain, France, Belgium, Holland, Germany and other countries have introduced ostriches from Africa to foster and cultivate as an industry. In addition to Asia, Thailand, Malaysia, India, Pakistan, and South Korea are all trying to raise ostriches. China is currently the country with the largest number of ostriches in Asia.
Since the end of 1992, China's Jiangmen City Bureau of Animal Husbandry imported eight African black ostriches from abroad for artificial rearing, and it has been promoted to more than 20 provinces and cities across the country, with more than 100,000 total stocks. In February 1996, the establishment of the China Ostrich Breeding and Development Association marked that the ostrich breeding industry is moving toward a healthy and orderly development in the direction of industrialization in China.
Second, the development prospects of ostrich breeding market As ostriches are resistant to roughage, strong adaptability and many other advantages mentioned above, in line with the national development of "grain-saving type" herbivorous animal industry policy, has received strong support from the country. Vice Minister Jiang Chunyun pointed out at the time of the establishment of the China Ostrich Breeding and Development Association that “China has a large number of deserted land and non-cultivable non-cultivated land, and the forage resources are very rich. The development of ostrich breeding has broad prospects, which are to adjust the structure of agricultural production and the people’s The structure of food, improving agricultural economic benefits, and prospering the rural economy will play an important role." State Councilor Comrade Chen Junsheng has also clearly stated the policy of “developing the ostrich industry and prospering the rural economy”. It can be seen that the state attaches great importance to the breeding and development of ostriches, and there are many policy support such as the exemption of income taxes.
Ostrich breeding development is a new industry and has only five years of development history in China. At present, there are only 100,000 or so national stocks. Just entering the breeding stage, the initial stage of the scale, far reaching the requirements of the commodity industry development. The population size of Henan Province is even smaller. Jinlu Company cooperated with the China Ostrich Breeding and Development Association to plan the development of the ostrich breeding industry in Henan Province and the Yellow River Basin. The task now is to rapidly expand the scale of the population, and after three years of struggle, establish an ostrich slaughtering and processing plant and a leather processing factory under the conditions of adequate supply of bird products so that ostrich breeding can be developed into the final commercialization industry.
The ostrich breeding industry has just started in China and has great potential for development. According to the development plan formulated by the China Ostrich Breeding & Development Association: Strive to form the embryonic form of China's ostrich industry by the end of this century. The ultimate goal is to form a modernized domestic ostrich with a central position in production, science, education, processing, and trade in the domestic and foreign markets. Industry, planning the main production indicators for 2000:
1. There are 50,000 egg breeders of bird species over 3 years old;
2. There are 1 million ostriches in stock and 150,000 slaughterhouses;
3. 6 million kilograms of ostrich meat and 150,000 ostrich skins;
4. To produce 200,000 tons of special feed for ostriches;
5, feathers, egg shells, bones, internal organs and other processing by-products can be fully utilized.
It is envisaged that by 2010, China will have 10 million egg-producing birds with an annual output of 300 million bird products and 12 million tons of ostrich meat annually.
Third, the ostrich breeding and development of social and economic benefits ostrich adaptability is very strong. It can be normally produced and propagated in natural environments ranging from -30 degrees Celsius to +45 degrees Celsius. It requires less geographical conditions for survival and does not require arable land. It can make full use of deserts, hills, sloping fields and arid areas. The environment surrounding the ostrich breeding ground will not be polluted. The ostriches are mainly raised on open-air fences, and the investment province and construction site are fast, and the feeding is mostly green feed. Therefore, the development of the ostrich industry is conducive to the full use of our country's forage resources and the development of the forage industry: it is beneficial to the development of large-area sandy lands in China and the improvement of non-cultivated land; it is conducive to the adjustment of agricultural product structure and the formation of new economic growth points in the region; It will help promote the development of the rural economy, help the peasants get rid of poverty and become rich; it will be conducive to the construction of related industries and the placement of surplus labor; it will help the market prosper and enrich people's food blues, and the social benefits will be obvious.
Ostriches are of high value and can be transformed and developed with higher value. According to the current domestic market conditions for ostriches, the value of each species of bird is generally 3.5-5 million yuan, depending on its production performance. If it is an imported species, the value is even higher, generally more than 70,000 yuan. Ostrich breeding ability is strong and grows fast. The number of eggs produced per year in breeding season is approximately 80 eggs. If the fertility rate, hatching rate and survival rate are all calculated at 80%, 40 young birds can be produced each year. The young birds can reach more than 100 kilograms in 10 months. If the export rate is calculated at 45%, a female of childbearing age can produce 1800 kilograms of ostrich meat in a production year. According to the acquisition information provided by the China Ostrich Society, the purchase price per kilogram of ostrich meat is RMB 60, and the output value is RMB 100,000. The corresponding can also produce 40 pieces of ostrich leather, the price of each leather according to different levels, between 1500-3000 yuan. In addition, the ostrich's feathers, bones, and egg shells can be made into market products. The ostriches can also be used as ornamental animals for visitors to watch. Therefore, the development of ostrich breeding is an emerging industry with huge economic benefits.
IV. Advantages of ostrich breeding in our province Henan Province is a large agricultural province with ample sources of green fodder and concentrate feed. Large-area sand plains and arid climate conditions are conducive to the breeding and breeding of ostriches. According to the biological characteristics of the ostrich and its geographical origin (30 degrees south latitude) and temperature, humidity and other environmental factors, the Yellow River Basin in China is most suitable for ostrich production and reproduction. Henan is located within the ostrich fitness raising belt promoted by the China Ostrich Aquiculture Development Association. Therefore, the China Ostrich Society requested our company to establish a national fine seed supply base, a breeding demonstration base, and a scientific research base. It can be seen that the development of ostrich breeding industry in Henan has obvious advantages.
Fifth, ostrich breeding and management requirements
1. Site Selection and Shed Design The selection of new ostrich sites is very important. It is best to choose sandy soil or sandy loam where the terrain is high, drainage is convenient, light is sufficient, and ventilation is good. Because sandy soil or sandy loam has more capillary pores, good air permeability and water permeability, it has low water holding capacity, and it will not be too muddy after rain and easy to keep dry. The area should be able to provide adequate and clean drinking water. The surrounding environment is also an important factor to consider when selecting a venue. Ostriches are particularly sensitive to the stimuli of the surrounding environment and are vulnerable to surprises and stress responses. Therefore, the environment around the ostrich farm should be quiet. The best greenery around the site is to allow the ostriches to live in a near-natural environment, so as to better realize their productive potential.
2. Selection of ostriches The selection of good ostrich species is the key to building a farm and is the most important factor determining the future economic benefits. The introduction of African ostriches into our country is relatively short, and it is now at the stage of population expansion. Due to the complex origin of ostrich introduction in domestic enterprises, the introduction of ostrich germplasm varies greatly. Therefore, farmers must be careful when purchasing ostriches. To select pure ostriches with good production performance, lay a good foundation for future development.
Ostriches are generally divided into three types: red-necked ostriches, blue-necked ostriches, and domesticated ostriches (domesticated ostriches are commonly known as African black ostriches). African black ostriches are compact in size, well-mannered, with fine feathers, early sexual maturity, and multiple egg production. Such characteristics are the main breeds currently raised.
When choosing ostriches, pay attention to pedigree files and blood matching. The pedigree file details the source, species, sex, age, parents, and the main production performance of the ostrich. This can be used to understand the performance of ostriches and their kinship and to make reasonable ancestry matching.
In addition, when you buy ostriches, you should observe their health. Observing methods are generally as follows: 1 Observing behavior: ostriches with good health are full of energy, stimulating reaction to external stimuli, and strong gregariousness; 2 Health observation of body surface: healthy ostrich's full muscle, no exposed bones, and no disability all over the body The gait is stable and normal. 3 Observation of feeding: Healthy ostriches have strong appetite. When the keeper enters the pen, he will take the initiative and wait for food; 4 Observe the feces: Healthy ostrich will be dark green, delicate and well-digested, urination Large amount, transparent urine, a small amount of white urate.
3. Feed supply for ostriches African ostriches are single-stomach, herbivorous birds whose gastrointestinal tracts are completely different from those of hatchback animals and also different from non-reflexive animals or poultry. Ostriches do not have teeth and crops; saliva contains no digestive enzymes. The esophagus passes through the glandular stomach, and the glandular stomach has a large volume and can store a large amount of food for feeding. The digestion of the stomach begins with the glands and stomach. Followed by the muscle stomach, was spherical. There are stones for digestion in the stomach. In addition, the most important feature of the ostrich digestive tract is that it contains two large cecum and a long colon, which is the condition for ostriches to ferment and digest. Therefore, the feed conversion rate of ostriches is currently the highest in livestock.
The supply of concentrate feed during the breeding of ostriches can be divided into seven stages, ie, young ostriches (0-2 months), small ostriches (2-4 months), growing ostriches (April-June), fattening ostriches (June-September) , Reserve ostrich (September-October), maintain (14-opening and production) and laying ostriches. Different stages of nutrition require different feed ratios. But mainly herbivorous. Ostriches have a wide range of feeding habits and can feed on a variety of pasture feeds and a variety of root tubers and vegetables.
4. Common diseases of ostriches and prevention and control of ostriches Due to short time of domestication and strong resistance to disease, diseases caused by improper feeding should be observed in the breeding process. First of all, pay attention to the quality of the feed to prevent ostriches from infecting molds due to eating moldy foods. The quality of feed for breeding ostriches is very high. Moldy foods and mildewed raw materials are harmful to ostriches. Secondly, attention should be paid to the problem of lignification of green feed fibers. Due to the severe lignification of green feed, diseases of ostrich digestive system are easily caused. In the final breeding process, care should be taken to avoid the possibility of ostrich trauma.

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