1 In the early stage of laying, the mother duck is generally 17 to 24 weeks of age. At this time, the duck has reached maturity and sexual maturity. The duck group has started production and the egg production rate has increased rapidly. The egg production rate of the high-yield duck at the age of 24 weeks can be reached. 80%. The focus of feeding and management at this stage is to pay close attention to the egg production rate and the rising trend of egg weight, and then increase the feeding amount and raise the nutrient level so as to reach the peak of egg production as soon as possible. It is recommended to raise the egg laying period at the early stage of laying, with particular attention to energy, protein, and calcium and phosphorus levels. Metabolisable energy 11.2 MJ/kg, protein 18%, calcium 3.5%, phosphorus 0.5%, no feed Ducks need to increase the amount of vitamins. The principle of illumination in the early stage of laying eggs is: it should only be prolonged and can not be shortened. The weekly fill light increment does not exceed 0.5 hours until 22 weeks of age reach 16 hours. The light intensity is 5 lx, and the concrete implementation of 2m wattage 25W bulbs per 18 m 2 One can, at the beginning of laying eggs, should reduce various stress factors, provide a more ideal egg production environment for laying ducks, in order to promote the peak of egg production.
2 The middle period of production is also called the peak period of egg production, which is generally 24-46 weeks old. The focus of management at this stage is to maintain peak egg production as much as possible, and strive to peak the egg production period of more than 46 weeks of age. During the peak of egg production, feed quality should be improved to ensure its nutritional needs. 18% to 20% of the protein-containing feed is fed, and animal feed, granular calcium, and green feed are appropriately fed. The material type in this period is generally unchanged, but the amount of feeding should also be adjusted by observing the feed intake, egg production rate, egg weight, egg production time, crust quality, feces, duck body feathers. The duck egg production rate remained constant during the season of production, and the egg weight was 300 days old in accordance with the standard egg weight of the breed (small egg duck 260-280 days old). The body weight is basically the same, Shao Shao weighing 1450 ~ 1500g, Jinding duck 1600 ~ 1700g, indicating the appropriate amount of feed. If the body weight is reduced at this time, it is necessary to feed animal feed. When the body weight is increased, the metabolic energy in the feed can be reduced, and the amount of green roughage or feed intake can be increased, but the animal feed does not change, and the body size is large. It can be slightly higher to maintain the original body weight level at the peak period, with specific reference to the breed standard. In addition, grit supplementation is also indispensable, and should be continuously replenished throughout the breeding process; light should be kept constant for 16 hours a day, with nighttime light.
3 Late egg production refers to the egg laying period of 47-72 weeks. After a duck has been laying eggs for more than 5 months, the egg production peak is difficult to maintain, and the average weekly decline should not exceed 1%, but for high-yielding species, if properly managed, the higher egg production rate can still be maintained. However, if it is not properly managed, the egg production rate will also decline and advance into the rest period. In general, when the egg production rate of a duck population of about 72 weeks of age drops to 60%, it enters the perinatal period or is eliminated as meat. The point of management at this stage is to determine the quality and amount of feed based on the weight of the duck and the rate of egg production. The duckling production rate is still above 80%, while the weight of the ducks is slightly reduced. Animal feed should be appropriately increased in the feed. If the ducks gain weight and have a tendency to gain weight, the egg production rate is still 80. About %, at this time, the energy level in the feed can be lowered, and the amount of green roughage fed or the amount of exercise of the ducks increased. If the normal body weight production rate is still high, the protein level in the feed should be slightly higher than in the previous stage; if there is a reduction in the egg weight and eggshell quality, protein feed, cod liver oil and inorganic salt additives should be added. Illumination lasts for 16 hours. When the duck population is 60 weeks old or the egg production rate is reduced to 80%, the illumination time can be extended to 17 hours. Management duck groups should pay attention to more and less clearance, promote exercise to prevent obesity, and pay attention to eliminating obscure ducks.
4 Reducing the stress of low temperature and high temperature on laying ducks is an important measure to increase egg production
4.1 Low winter temperatures and short daylight exposures can reduce egg production. Winter ducklings focus on cold insulation and supplementary lighting. The suitable ambient temperature for ducks is 5-27Â°C, and the optimum ambient temperature for laying ducks is 13-20Â°C. The most suitable temperature for feed utilization and egg production rate are in the best condition. In the winter, the duck house should be sealed tightly around it, especially to prevent the thief from blowing the duck body, so that the temperature should be maintained above 5Â°C. While keeping warm, you should pay attention to ventilation and keep the air in the house fresh and dry. The ducks should be carried out at noon. After the south window is opened to ventilation and the â€œnoise duckâ€ is used for 10 minutes, the ducks should be put on the playground. The ducks should not be put in a long time, and ducks should be used to increase the amount of bedding. In the winter, it should be filled with light for 16 hours. The nighttime light is still illuminated with light. The feed intake of winter laying ducks has increased. It is necessary to adjust feed nutrients, increase their energy feed, and reduce protein feeds. At the same time, feeds will be fed once at night. Snow ducks should be kept in the rain, but it is necessary to â€œnoise ducksâ€ 5 to 6 times a day.
4.2 In summer, the temperature is high, the sunshine duration is long and the rainwater is relatively heavy. The management of ducks is focused on preventing the heatstroke and cooling, promoting the intake of food, increasing the intake of feed and keeping the dryness of duck houses. Ducks are not heat-tolerant, especially under continuous high temperatures above 30Â°C. Feed intake is reduced, resulting in inadequate nutrition, a drop in egg production, reduced egg weight, thinner eggshells, and increased broken eggs. In order to relieve heat stress, we must promptly adjust feed nutrient levels. First, increase feed energy levels, add cod liver oil, etc.; second, adjust protein and amino acid levels, use supplemental amino acids to address protein deficiencies and amino acid balance; and third, increase calcium. Content; Fourth, add 0.2% baking soda feed, drinking water, add electrolytes, etc.; Fifth, add vitamin C 200 ~ 400mg/kg or bacitracin zinc in drinking water or feed, can maintain egg production rate does not fall, increase feed conversion rate. Another improvement in environmental conditions during the hot season is an effective measure to relieve heat stress. For example, the removal of the wall of the duck shed is replaced by the use of a net fence; the pergola is shaded on the playground; in the evening, the ducks can be allowed to spend the night outside, but bedding on the playground should be used for egg production and low light lighting to prevent animal damage; drinking water must not be interrupted. It is best to provide underground cool drinking water; properly evacuate the duck population density, increase the number of water intake, it is best to allow the duck group to rest on the grass.
5 Other issues that should be noted during the production period
5.1 Strictly implement the veterinary hygiene system, keep the sanitation of the duck houses and sports grounds, the hygiene of drinking water and feed, guard against moldy deterioration of feeds, washing basins and feeding bowls every day, disinfecting both inside and outside and sports grounds regularly, if necessary, drinking water Add disinfectant.
5.2 When preventing or treating diseases, do not use prohibited drugs and drugs that affect egg production. You can use probiotics. Issues such as vaccination and deworming should be carried out before opening.
5.3 According to different seasons, daily working procedures shall be established. Every day, such as putting in circles, collecting eggs, feeding, cleaning, replacing or replacing litter, turning on lights, and turning off lights, shall be fixed for a fixed period of time. Do not change them arbitrarily. To be methodical.
5.4 Do a good job of recording. During the production process, various records should be made, including production diaries, materials, immunizations, medications, dead scouring, production of eggs, etc. The actual production situation should be analyzed based on records, problems should be corrected in a timely manner, and experience should be summarized so that the ducks can obtain Higher economic efficiency.
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