Chinese medicine tablet
â˜… First, the meaning
The traditional Chinese medicine tablet refers to a preparation of a medicinal material, a medicinal material extract, a fine powder of the medicinal material or a fine powder of the medicinal material and a suitable excipient to be pressed and pressed into a pellet or a shaped tablet. Mainly for internal use, but also for external use.
â˜… Second, features
The main advantage:
1 The dose is accurate, because the patient takes the tablets, and the on-chip drugs are uniform and the content difference is small;
2 stable quality, some drugs susceptible to oxidative deterioration or deliquescence, can be protected by coating or cooperation;
3 The production is mechanized, the degree of automation is high, the output is large, the cost is low, and the pharmacy is easy to reach the standard;
4 convenient to take, carry, store, etc.;
5 varieties are rich, can meet the different needs of medical and preventive drugs.
The disadvantages are:
1 improper preparation or storage will affect the disintegration and absorption of the tablet;
2 Some Chinese medicine tablets are easy to get wet and damp; tablets containing volatile components have a long-term storage content of the components;
3 The dissolution and bioavailability of the drug in the tablet are slightly worse than those of the capsule and the powder;
4 children and comatose patients are not easy to swallow.
â˜… Third, the classification of tablets
(1) Oral tablets 1. Ordinary tablets; 2. Coated tablets; 3. Chewable tablets; 4. Dispersible tablets; 5. Effervescent tablets; 6. Multi-layer tablets.
(B) oral tablets 1. buccal tablets; 2. sublingual tablets.
(3) topical tablets 1. vaginal tablets; 2. solution tablets.
â˜… Fourth, the type of Chinese medicine tablets
1. Purified sheet; 2. Full powder sheet; 3. Full-dip sheet; 4. Half-dip sheet.
The second section of the tablet accessories
The purpose of adding auxiliary materials during film production is to ensure the fluidity, lubricity, compressibility of the tablet material and the disintegration property of the finished product. Improper use or discomfort of the excipients may not only affect the tableting process, but also have a certain and even important impact on the quality, stability and efficacy of the tablets. Tablet excipients must have high physical and chemical stability, do not react with main drugs and other auxiliary materials, do not affect the release, absorption and content determination of the main drug, are harmless to the human body, and are cheap and easy to obtain.
The commonly used excipients for tablets are classified into diluents and absorbents, wetting agents and binders, disintegrating agents and lubricants according to their use.
First, thinner and absorbent
Diluents and absorbents are collectively referred to as fillers. The former is suitable for a main dose of less than 0.1g, or a large amount of extracting paste, or the extract is too sticky and difficult to produce. The latter applies to those who need more volatile oils, fatty oils or other liquids in the bulk drug. The following varieties are commonly used, and some have both adhesion and disintegration effects.
1. Starch and compressible starch. Starch is cheap and easy to obtain, and is a commonly used diluent, absorbent and disintegrating agent for tablets. Compressible starch, also known as pre-gelatinized starch, has good compressibility, fluidity and self-lubricity. The prepared tablet has good hardness and disintegration, and is especially suitable for direct compression of powder.
2. Dextrin. It is often used as a filler in combination with starch and has a bonding effect. Dextrin is more viscous. When the dosage is more, ethanol should be used as a wetting agent to avoid the particles being too hard. It should be noted that dextrin interferes with the determination of certain drugs and should not be used as a filler for instant tablets.
3. Powdered sugar. Soluble in water, easy to absorb moisture and agglomerate. It is a good thinner for tablets and has both flavor and adhesion. It is mostly used for the production of tablets, chewable tablets and fibrous traditional Chinese medicines or loose textures. Powdered sugar is often used in combination with starch and dextrin. Sugar powder is hygroscopic. Excessive dosage will make granulation and tableting difficult. Long-term storage will increase the hardness of the tablet. Acidic or strong alkaline drugs can promote the conversion of sucrose and increase its wettability, so it is not suitable for compatibility.
4. Lactose. Soluble in water, no hygroscopicity; good fluidity, compressibility; stable in nature, compatible with most drugs. Lactose is an excellent filler. The prepared tablets are smooth, beautiful, and have appropriate hardness. The release of the drug is faster, and the content of the main drug is less affected. The long-term storage does not prolong the disintegration time limit of the tablet, and is especially suitable for the dehumidification drug. .
5. Mannitol. It is a white crystalline powder, cool and sweet, soluble in water; no hygroscopicity, it is the main diluent and flavoring agent for chewable tablets and buccal tablets. Sorbitol has good compressibility and can also be used as a filler and binder for chewable tablets.
6. Calcium sulfate dihydrate. It is white or yellowish powder, insoluble in water, non-wetting, stable in nature, and compatible with most drugs. It has strong absorption capacity for oils and can reduce the wettability of drugs. It is often used as an absorbent for thinners and volatile oils. Calcium sulphate hemihydrate is easy to solidify and hard to meet in water. It should not be used. When using dihydrate to prepare tablets by wet granule method, the drying temperature of wet granules should be controlled below 70 Â°C, so as to avoid losing more than one molecule of crystal water after the temperature is too high, and then hardening with water. According to reports, this product can interfere with the absorption of quercetin.
7. Calcium hydrogen phosphate. It is a white fine powder or crystal, which is slightly acidic, with good stability and fluidity. Calcium phosphate is similar to its traits. Both are good absorbents for traditional Chinese medicine extracts, oils and oil-containing extracts, and have the effect of reducing the hygroscopicity of the drug.
8. Other. Magnesium oxide, calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate can be used as an absorbent, and are particularly suitable for the preparation of traditional Chinese medicines containing more volatile oils and fatty oils. The amount should be determined according to the oil content of the drug, generally about 10%. It should be noted that acidic drugs are not suitable because they are more alkaline.
Wetting Agents and Adhesives Wetting agents and binders have the effect of bonding solid powders into the tablet. A liquid that is not sticky by itself but that can wet and induce the viscosity of the powder is called a wetting agent. It is suitable for granulating tablets with certain viscosity. An adhesive which is inherently viscous and which increases the adhesion between the powders to facilitate granulation and tableting, and is called a binder. It is suitable for granulating tablets without viscous or insufficient viscosity.
There are two types of binders, solid and liquid. Generally, the liquid type has a large bonding effect, and the solid type (also called "dry binder") often has the function of a diluent. Reasonable selection of wetting agents and binders and proper control of their amount are related to the formation of tablets, affecting the dissolution of active ingredients and the bioavailability of tablets. Commonly used wetting agents and adhesives have the following varieties.
1. Water. Distilled or deionized water is generally used. Drugs that are readily soluble in water or easily hydrolyzed are not suitable.
2. Ethanol. Where the drug is sticky, but it is too viscous to be granulated after exposure to water; or it is easily deteriorated when exposed to water; or the drug is easily soluble in water and difficult to prepare; or the particles are too hard after drying, affecting the quality of the tablet, all should be different The concentration of ethanol acts as a wetting agent. Chinese medicine extract powder, semi-dip powder and other granulations often use ethanol as a wetting agent. When a large amount of starch, dextrin or powdered sugar is used as a vehicle, ethanol is also commonly used as a wetting agent.
3. Starch pulp (paste). A commonly used binder for zui. The concentration used is generally 8% to 15%, and 10%zui is commonly used.
There are two methods for preparing starch slurry: boiled pulping method and pulping method.
4. Dextrin. Mainly used as a dry binder, it is also formulated with 10% dexame slurry and 10% starch slurry. The viscous paste is viscous between the starch syrup and the syrup, which mainly binds the surface of the granules, and is not suitable for the preparation of traditional Chinese medicines with high fiber and elasticity.
5. Syrup. It is an aqueous solution of sucrose, which has strong adhesive force and is suitable for strong fiber. It is suitable for drugs with strong fiber, high elasticity and loose texture. The concentration is usually 50% to 70%, and is often mixed with starch slurry or glue. It is not suitable for drugs with strong acidity and alkalinity, so as to avoid the production of invert sugar and increase the wettability, which is unfavorable for tableting.
Liquid glucose, sucrose, and nectar have strong viscosities. The applicable range of drugs is similar to that of syrup, but they all have certain hygroscopicity and should be controlled.
6. Glue class. It has strong adhesiveness and is often used as a loose drug with poor compressibility or as a binder for a mouth-of-mouth tablet with high hardness. Attention should be paid to the concentration and dosage when using. If the concentration is too high, the dosage will affect the disintegration of the tablet and the dissolution of the drug. The gum arabic and gelatin syrups of this type are mainly used for buccal tablets and drugs which are light or easily lose crystal water. Another multifunctional adhesive polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) cement, its aqueous solution is suitable for chewable tablets; its dry powder is a dry binder for direct compression, which can increase the hydrophilicity of hydrophobic drugs and facilitate tablet disintegration. Its anhydrous ethanol solution can be used for granulation of effervescent tablets; and 5% to 10% aqueous PVP solution is a good binder for spray-dry granulation.
7. Microcrystalline cellulose. It can be used as a binder, disintegrant, glidant and diluent. It is not suitable for coated tablets and some water-sensitive drugs because of its hygroscopicity.
8. Cellulose derivatives. Sodium carboxymethylcellulose, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose can be used as the binder. Both have a disintegration effect.
ZP-9 tablet press is a multi-punching machine with 19 punches, which can be continuously pressed or various shaped pieces. The technical parameters of ZP-9 tablet press are as follows:
name Â Â Â Â Â Weigh
single Â Â Â Â Bit
Means Â Â Â Standard
Turntable die number
Zui big work pressure
Zui large tablet diameter
Zui large tablet thickness
Zui large filling depth
Turntable working diameter
Transfer / minute (r / min)
0 to 30
Upper and lower punch diameter
Upper and lower punch length
Dimensions (length Ã— width Ã— height)
Hunan Zhongcheng Pharmaceutical Machinery Factory has many varieties, suitable for use in pharmacies, clinics, pharmaceutical factories and hospitals. The quality is guaranteed. It is not satisfied with the return of seven days, one year warranty and lifetime maintenance. Welcome new and old friends to log in to our company: Or directly dial the pharmaceutical technology department to play: Consulting, our factory will provide you with more professional services!
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