In recent years, with the improvement of people's living standards, pollution-free sweet potato food has been increasingly favored by people. The production of pollution-free sweet potato has become a new way for farmers to increase their income. The Sheqi County of Henan Province is home to the country's famous pollution-free â€œ3 powderâ€ (ie sweet potato vermicelli, noodles and vermicelli), and its annual planting area reaches 400,000 mu. The current high-yield, high-efficiency cultivation techniques for pollution-free sweet potatoes in the county are described below:
1. Variety Selection The standard of sweet potato varieties is high-yield, high-quality, multi-resistance, and has wide adaptability and strong resistance. Sheqi County mainly selects the detoxified sweetpotato varieties such as Yushu 12, Yushu 13, Meiying No. 3 and Huaiyang-17. The yield per mu of these varieties is more than 3500 kg of spring potatoes and more than 2,500 kg of summer potatoes.
2. Deep plowing in soil preparation can thicken loose soil layer, mature soil, reduce soil bulk density, improve soil aeration, increase rainfall infiltration, expand root distribution, improve drought resistance, and is conducive to microbial activity. Therefore, deep plowing is to obtain high yield of pollution-free sweet potato. Foundation. Deep plowing depth is generally 25 to 30 cm. Deep plowing before the winter, combined with the application of organic fertilizer, but also pay attention to honing. The advantage of sweet potato ridge planting is to thicken loose soil layer, increase ground temperature, increase temperature difference between day and night, facilitate drainage, improve soil permeability, and promote root swelling, so ridge cultivation is necessary. Summer potato vines shorter, with ridge width of 60 cm, ridge height of about 23 cm is appropriate, planting a line of sweet potatoes on the ridge; spring potato stems longer, with ridge width of 70 cm, ridge height of about 30 cm is appropriate, A row of sweet potatoes was planted on the ridge. In the poorly-drained plots, large ridges and double rows were used. The ridge width was 120 cm and the ridge height was 50 cm to facilitate drainage and flood prevention.
1 The requirement of fertilizer for sweet potatoes. According to the experimental analysis, each kilogram of fresh potatoes produced needs to absorb 3.5 kg of pure nitrogen, 1.8 kg of phosphorus pentoxide and 5.0 kg of potassium oxide. Fertilizer in the available nitrogen fertilizer should not be too much, so as to avoid leggy, and pay attention to the three elements of fertilizer application. During the different growth stages of sweet potato, the distribution of nutrients and the accumulation of dry matter in the shoot and the ground were basically the same. In the early stage of growth, the growth of the aboveground part is greater than that of the underground part, and the distribution ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium is also greater than the underground part. In the middle period of growth, the growth of the underground part is greater than that of the ground, and the proportion of underground nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium is gradually increasing. In the later growth period, the growth rate of the underground part was significantly higher than that of the ground, and the distribution ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium also accounted for a significant advantage.
2 fertilization technology. The soil fertility standards for pollution-free sweet potato high-yield fields are 1% to 2% for organic matter, 0.4% for total nitrogen, 50 mg/kg for hydrolyzable nitrogen, 0.1% for total phosphorus, 20 mg/kg for available phosphorus, and 2% or more for total potassium. , Available potassium 120 mg/kg or more. Since the sweet potatoes in Sheqi County are all grown on barren soil, in order to increase the yield of sweet potatoes, non-polluting organic fertilizers must be applied in combination with nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizers. Under normal circumstances, 2000 to 2500 kilograms of fresh potato production per acre, basal fertilization should be 2000 to 3000 kg of organic fertilizer, 50 kg of superphosphate, 20 kg of potassium sulfate, when the soil contains less than 40 mg/kg of hydrolyzed nitrogen. When increasing urea 10 kg per acre, topdressing urea 10-13 kg per acre in the early stage of growth.
4. Irrigation and drainage The water consumption of sweet potato during the whole growth period, according to the research, the field water consumption of spring potato between 2500 and 4000 kg is 450-750 mm, which is equivalent to 300-500 m3 irrigation per mu. In Henan province, the annual rainfall is uneven, the early drought, and the rain in June to August are concentrated. The middle and late stages of the growth of sweet potato are often affected by drought and drought. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to rowing in the mid-growth stage of sweet potato. irrigation.
1 planting period. Spring potato is stable at a temperature of 5 to 10 centimeters at 16 to 17Â°C. The spring potato planting period is too early, due to the lower temperature or frost damage caused by the spring caused by the lack of seedling production. In the central part of Henan Province, the spring potato is generally planted on the rainy season. It should be 10 to 20 days in the south and 10 to 20 days in the north. It cannot be later than the beginning of summer. The growth period of the summer potato is short, it is necessary to strive for early cutting, and the lower the accumulated temperature of the cutting, the greater the reduction in production. Non-pollution and high-yielding summer potato requires about 120 days of field growth, and the accumulated temperature is more than 2700Â°C. If late planting not only reduces the yield, but also increases the proportion of small potato stalks and cuts dry rate. According to the experiment of the Agricultural Technology Center of Sheqi County in Henan Province, from June 20 to July 5, the average yield per day was reduced by 1.5% for one day, and the yield was reduced by an average of 3% for one day after July 5th. The spring and summer potato areas in south-central Henan require that the spring potatoes be planted at the end of May and the summer potatoes be planted before June 25th.
2 reasonable dense planting. In the south of Yunan and Henan, the number of spring potato per mu is 3500-3800, and that of summer potato is 3800-4500 per mu. The spacing of spring potatoes is 70-80 cm, and the summer potato is 60-70 cm. The spacing between the springs is generally 20-25 cm.
3 planting methods. The transplanted potato seedlings should be removed from the diseased seedlings, weak seedlings, and dip 50% of carbendazim wettable powder 1000 times liquid for 10 minutes to prevent black spot. When the potato seedlings are shorter, the slanting cultivation method is used, and when the potato seedlings are relatively short, the bottoming type cultivation method is used. Planting depth of 5 to 7 cm is appropriate. In the past two years, sweet potato stem nematode disease occurred seriously. The prevention and control method was 10% non-pollution agent per acre Tiannuo line wettable powder 2 to 3 kilograms and 60 kilograms of soil was mixed. When planting lotus root, each hole Shi 15 to 20 After watering. Summer potato seedlings were planted from the nursery or from the spring potato field where the summer potato was used to cut the apical buds. The growth was strong and the number of tubers was high. When planting pods, the top buds should be exposed to the ground for 3 to 4 centimeters in length, leaving 2-3 leaves on the ground and burying the rest of the leaves in the ground.
5. Field Management
1 early period. a. Cultivated weeding: After the yam has returned to green, cultivators can be started to facilitate the early growth of stems and leaves, and early tuberization. The cultivating frequency is 2 to 3 times. Cultivating in time after rain can prevent soil compaction. After the sweet potato has been ridged, it is necessary to stop the cultivating tillage so as not to damage the stems and leaves, resulting in a reduction in yield. However, if there is a large turf, it should be promptly removed. b. Dressing: In the slow seedling stage, the top-dressing fertilizer is mainly quick-acting nitrogen, and is applied with phosphorus and potassium fertilizers. Usually, the topdressing urea is 8 to 10 kg per mu, and the trench is concentrated at the bottom of the ridge and slope, and the soil is covered. Apply more to the seedlings to promote balanced growth. c. Watering in time: The soil moisture in the early growth stage of sweet potato should be 70% of the water capacity in the field. When the water holding capacity is below 60%, irrigation should be carried out, but the water must be slowly and slowly poured, and the amount of water should not be too large. d. Control of pests: Ground tigers are roasted with 2.5 to 3 kg of crushed bean cake or cottonseed cake per acre, and then 100 g of 90% crystal trichlorfon (with warm water) is sprayed evenly on these bean cakes or cottonseed cakes. , And heap stuffy for 2 to 3 hours, in the early evening before and after sway ridge do poison bait.
2 in the late period. a. Drainage and flood prevention: When the soil moisture is more than 80% of the field capacity, it is unfavorable for the expansion of the tubers. Therefore, drainage is required before the rainy season. b. The vines are not overturned to protect the stems and leaves: the vines often break off the tip of the vines, which promotes the axillary buds of the vines, consumes a lot of nutrients, reduces the transfer of nutrients to the roots, and generally reduces production by more than 10%. Lifting vines. c. Control of pests: When the rotifer, moth, leaf-roller, bridge-building insect, and armyworm occur damage, 2.0% of avermectin 20 grams of water and 60 to 70 kg of avermectin per acre . d. Top-dressing: When the late-phase yellowing of leaves is faster, extra-root top-dressing should be carried out. Each mu is sprayed with 0.4% potassium dihydrogen phosphate or 2% potassium sulfate solution, 100 kg spray, 7 to 10 days, and even spraying. 3 times.
6. Harvest When the soil temperature is stable at about 5 to 10 centimeters, the root weight gain is very small. When the temperature is stabilized at 15Â°C, the tuber stops expanding. Therefore, when the ground temperature stabilizes at 18Â°C, the ground temperature is stable at 12Â°C. It is advisable to harvest it. In the southwest of Henan, the harvest is generally started in mid-to late October. When harvesting, it must be lightly planed, lightly loaded, lightly transported, and gently placed to minimize the number of handlings and prevent the sweet potato from being broken and wounded.
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