Artificial cultivation of sea cucumber

The original name of sea cucumber was Shali, because it was covered with a sting and looked like cucumber, and it was also known as the "sea cucumber." Although this “sea cucumber” is not beautiful compared to the colorful seabed creatures, its nutritional value is extremely high. As a valuable nutritional supplement for longevity, it is hailed as a ginseng in the sea and is named after the sea cucumber. There are more than 100 kinds of sea cucumbers that have been collected in China, but there are only 21 kinds of sea cucumbers that can be eaten. The varieties with the highest yield and good quality are numbered as sea cucumber. According to expert analysis, sea cucumber is mainly composed of a large number of mucins and various amino acids, which have anti-tumor, anti-coagulation and anti-aging effects.
With the improvement of people's quality of life, the demand for sea cucumber is increasing day by day. However, in recent years, due to over-harvesting, the resources of sea cucumber have been destroyed, and the amount of catch has far exceeded the market's demand, and the market price continues to soar. Under such circumstances, artificial breeding of sea cucumber using seawater ponds has a promising outlook and can become a new way for fishermen to increase their income. Stichopus japonicus is native to the shallow sea of ​​the North Pacific Ocean. The environment and climate of China's coastal areas are more suitable for its growth. At present, the sea cucumber aquaculture in many coastal areas in China has begun to take shape.
Apostichopus japonicus artificial breeding mainly has the following characteristics: First, the breeding technology is simple, mud-bottom ponds, stone throwing culture, shallow seabed sowing can be. Second, the market has broad prospects, and the nutritional value of sea cucumbers is high. Now the market is in short supply and it is difficult to sell. The third is high efficiency. Taking Yantai City of Shandong Province as an example, the city's annual aquaculture efficiency is more than 20,000 yuan, while other regions have some benefits up to 30,000 yuan. Now, the city has cultivated more than 450 mu of sea cucumber in the pond, and the seawater has reached 1,200 mu.
Although stichopus culture has a higher income, it is also a project with a large investment and must bear certain risks. Artificially cultivated sea cucumbers can be used for releasing and multiplying or constructing ponds around the sea. Pond farming requires the creation of conditions suitable for the growth of sea cucumber. Stichopus japonicus generally inhabits shallow seas of 3 to 15 meters in size, and prefers to live in the calm sea currents, algae-rich rocky sea bottoms, or hardwood sediments and harder sediments. Stichopus japonicus belongs to narrow-salinity animals, not tolerant of low-salt, the most suitable salinity is 28 to 38, so the pond should be built in a wide sea area, clear water, rich bait, away from the estuary and no pollution of the sea, in this environment stab Senate grows faster.
In order to ensure that the pool water can be recycled in a timely manner and keep it clean, it has been proved that the pond can be built into a free-standing tide type. The free-standing tidal pond is connected to the sea. When the tide rises, open the intake gate to absorb fresh seawater, and open the gate to drain some of the pool water. This will not only ensure fresh seawater in the pond, but also absorb a large amount of plankton to provide sufficient feed for sea cucumber. It should be noted that sea cucumber requires high salinity, and the most sudden increase in salinity salience suddenly decreases. Therefore, in the course of heavy rain and heavy rain, the drainage of the pond should not be too large. Progressive inflow should be performed to ensure the stability of salinity. At present, the use of free-nano-type pond culture model is quite good.
Stichopus japonicus likes to attach to hard attachments. The cultured sea cucumber needs to create a special environment for it. Artificial reefs are made by depositing stones, tiles, and cement bricks at the bottom of the pond. Because the surface area of ​​the stone is relatively large, the basic food for growth is also relatively large, and it is possible to feed the sea cucumber. Therefore, the effect of stone reef-building is best.
After the pond is built, stocking seedlings is stocked. Seed selection should pay attention to early, large and strong, that is, the eggs produced by the first batch are more robust, so we must choose early seedlings; if the seeds are relatively abundant, we must try to choose large seedlings; if they are all large, we must Choose strong seedlings. It should be noted that stocking densities should be reasonable and excessive stocking densities can cause disease.
Select the size of 3 cm to 10 cm, no wounded seedlings, stocking 2000 to 6000 heads per acre, stocking density is too large may cause disease or even grow up, resulting in too low a commodity rate.
The daily management of sea cucumber is simple. The first is to change the water and adopt free-nano-tidal culture. It is necessary to ensure that water is used twice a day. Changing the amount of water is less likely to cause disease.
Stichopus japonicus adapts to the temperature very well and can grow normally in the temperature range of 0°C to 20°C. However, when the temperature exceeds 28°C, measures such as shading and water change are required to cool down. The usual feeding and management is relatively simple. The sea cucumber is mainly based on plankton, benthic diatoms, and organic debris. The food organisms in the sea water can basically meet their growing needs. In the season where the plankton is low, they can vote. Feed the right amount of feed.
The sea lice have less predators, including Japanese oysters, giggas, and squid. Once discovered, they must be removed in time. Stichopus japonicus is a high-quality marine product, its breeding investment is large, the risk is high, and it needs an appropriate water environment. Therefore, we hope that everyone should be realistic and adapt to local conditions. It must not blindly follow the trend.

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