Application research of ozone

 Application research of ozone 
 As early as the 19th century, people recognized the special role of ozone. As a strong oxidant, disinfectant, refined preparation, catalyst, etc., ozone is widely used in water treatment, medical and health, petrochemical, food, paper and fragrance purification. Multiple departments. 
 Ozone applications have penetrated into many fields for more than 100 years and have made significant contributions to the development of human production technology. Ozone applications are divided into four areas: water treatment, medical pharmacy, chemical oxidation, and food processing and preservation. The application research and equipment development in various fields have reached a fairly high level. The world has formed an independent ozone technology industry and sector, and the International Ozone Association (IOA), established in 1973, is based in Canada. The association holds international conferences every two years to exchange papers and reports on the development of ozone technology in various countries. In developed countries, IOA regional organizations have been established for academic exchanges. 
 After the Second World War, the international application of ozone technology has made great progress. First, in 1902, Paderborn, Germany, established a large-scale water plant that uses ozone to treat water quality, creating a precedent for ozone water treatment. Now there are thousands of ozone water plants in the world, such as Europe, America, Japan, Canada, etc. The application of ozone in the waterworks has reached a level of popularity. Mineral water and pure water manufacturers are almost equipped with ozone equipment. In the early 1970s, the United States began to use ozone to treat domestic sewage, mainly for sterilizing, removing pollutants, decolorizing, etc. to meet emission standards. In Japan, sewage is treated with ozone in water-deficient areas and used as water. The United States, Japan, Germany, France and other countries have established large-scale ozone sewage treatment plants in recent years. Secondly, industrial application of ozone has become very common, mainly used in the chemical, petroleum, paper, textile and pharmaceutical, and perfume industries. The application of the food industry is more popular. In 1904, Europe used ozone to preserve the preservation of milk, meat products, cheese, protein and other foods. At the end of the 1930s, 80% of the US chilled egg banks were equipped with ozone generators. After the Second World War, Europe, the United States, and Japan used ozone in food, fruit, and vegetable preservation to store, manufacture, and transport. In the medical field, Japan used ozone for human physiotherapy during World War II, and Russia used for strong gas (ozonized air) sports people. 
 At present, there are many uses in the medical field in the world: air disinfection in wards and operating rooms, disinfection of medical devices using ozone water, dental disease treatment using ozone (oral surgery and maintaining oral sterility), ozone and radiation Physiotherapy combined with treatment of cancer, ozone water cleaning for gynecological diseases, injection of ozone gas for treatment of sputum, varicose veins, etc. In terms of health care, Japan and Taiwan are popular with strong gas (air with low concentration of ozone) to strengthen the body, and use ozonized water to shower body killing bacteria and beauty. The current high-tech beauty is actually the application of ozone. 
 In addition, in the "Disinfection Technical Specifications" promulgated by the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China in 1991, there are clear regulations on the bactericidal effect of ozone, the scope of use and the method of use. Among them, the bactericidal effect of ozone has been clearly affirmed: "4.12.2 bactericidal effect: ozone is a broad-spectrum fungicide, can kill bacterial propagules and spores, viruses, fungi, etc., can destroy botulinum toxin. Ozone is sterilized faster in water than chlorine. These are the national regulatory standards for sanitation and disinfection, and are very supportive for the promotion of ozone disinfection technology. 
 1. Broad spectrum bactericidal effect of ozone 
 Since the discovery and use of ozone by humans, scientists have been testing the sterilization performance of ozone. There are many reports on this aspect. The following is a summary of several aspects. 
 Ozone to bacterial propagule 
 Li Huaien et al observed the killing effect of ozone gas on Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the air. At 15 ° C, humidity 73%, ozone concentration 0.08-0.6ppm, the kill rate in 30 minutes reached 99.9% or more; Wu Xuezhou and other test ozone killing rate of E. coli 100%, the kill rate of Staphylococcus aureus 95.9%, the killing rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 89.8%. According to the test of Gu Shizhen, the killing rates of ozone against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were 99.7% and 99.9%, respectively. Ju Xijuan and other test ozone can kill 99.99% of Staphylococcus aureus in the air; Burleson et al. test the ozone gas into Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella typhimurium, F. sinensis In the phosphate buffer solution of Bacillus cholerae and Vibrio cholerae, the above bacteria were all killed after 15 seconds; Bai Xiqi and others found that the ozone aqueous solution has a strong bactericidal action, and the speed is extremely fast, and the concentration of ozone aqueous solution of 0.3 mg/L acts for 1 minute. The killing rate of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus is 100%. 
 Ozone to bacterial spore 
 Yan Falin and other reports, under the action of 5.5mg / m3 of ozone for 45 minutes, can be 100% plastic bottle infected Bacillus subtilis black mutant spores 100%; Ju Xijuan and other reports, in the 1m3 test cabinet, open 500mg / The ozone generator of h can kill 99.95% of the Bacillus subtilis spores in the air for 60 minutes; Ouyangchuan and others under the dynamic test conditions, the ozone gas is passed into the dyed well water, and the ozone concentration reaches 3.8-4.6mg. At /L, for 3-10 minutes, the killing rate of Bacillus subtilis black mutant spores is 99.999%. 
 Ozone to virus 
 Li Shaoqi et al found that the titer of hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg) decreased from 1:256 to 1:64 after 30 minutes of ozone concentration of 10.3 mg/m3. Shi Jiang et al reported that the use of ozone concentration of 13.6mg / m3 for 30 minutes, HbsAg destruction of 99.99%, the use of hepatitis A virus antigen (HAAg) damage 100%; Wolo and other experiments proved that 0.5ppm of ozone can inactivate air in the type A Influenza virus 99%; Herbold et al reported that 100% inactivation of poliovirus type I (PVI) in 20 ° C water with an ozone concentration of 0.13 mg / L. The ozone inactivated virus is extremely fast. When the ozone concentration is 0.09 mg/L-0.8 mg/L, the phage T2 can be inactivated for 5-7 logarithms within 5 seconds of the reaction. When Finch found that the concentration of ozone in water was 40 μg/L, it took 20 seconds to inactivate the logarithm of E. coli phage ms2. Vaughn et al. compared the inactivation of ozone against rotavirus SA-H and human rotavirus type 2 at 4 °C and found that both viruses were rapidly inactivated by 0.25 mg/L ozone. Crpend et al. examined the inactivation of HIV in the serum after ozone treatment, and proved that when the ozone concentration is 4 mg/L, the titer is 106 CID50/mL HIV, and the virus titer is decreased by 6 pairs. Value. 
 Ozone to fungi 
 Wang Huaming et al reported that when the ozone concentration was 9.6 mg/L, the killing rate of Aspergillus variabilis and P. syphilis was 100% for 100 minutes, 30 minutes for Cladosporium fulvum 23 mg/L, and 12.5 mg for Penicillium sp. L action for 35 minutes, Penicillium citrinum at 15.4 mg / L for 30 minutes, and Fusarium oxysporum at 15.5 mg / L for 20 minutes, can achieve 100% inactivation rate. For Aspergillus fumigatus, Alternaria alternata, Mucor mumarola, etc., the inactivation rate of 96.4% was 10-20 minutes when the ozone concentration was 3.85-10.7 mg/L. Wu Xuezhou and others found that the killing rate of ozone to penicillium was 93.8% in 30 minutes, and the killing rate against mucor was 100%. Bai Xiwei et al reported that the concentration of 15 mg/L ozone solution can be used for 1 minute, 100%. The Aspergillus niger and yeast in the test were killed. 
 Ozone to protozoa 
 Finch et al. compared the inactivation effect of ozone on the flagellin of the genus Giardia lamblia and the genus Giardia at 22 °C. When the Ct value was 0.86 mg.min/L, the strain of the genus Giardia was reduced by 4 The logarithmic value, when the Ct value is 2.5 mg.min/L, reduces the logarithm of D. gigas to 4 logarithms. Korich et al. compared the inactivation of ozone, chlorine dioxide and chlorine on the cryptospores of Cryptosporidium parvum in purified water. It was proved that 1 ppm of ozone can inactivate 90% of oocysts in 5 minutes and 1.3 ppm of chlorine dioxide. It takes 1 hour to work, and 80 ppm of chlorine takes 1.5 hours to achieve the same effect. 
 Principle of broad-spectrum sterilization of ozone 
 The above report shows that ozone has obvious inactivation effect on almost all pathogens, viruses, molds, fungi, protozoa and oocysts, and the sterilization time is extremely rapid, 300-600 times of chlorine and 3000 times of ultraviolet rays. . Ozone sterilization mechanism, Roy et al. reported that ozone can destroy four polypeptide chains of viral capsid protein and damage RNA; Kim et al. reported that during the process of ozone, RNA in phage was released, and phage was observed by electron microscopy. Break into small pieces. It is also believed that ozone can react with bacterial cell wall lipid double bonds, penetrate into the inside of the bacteria, act on lipoproteins and lipopolysaccharides, and change the permeability of the cells, leading to bacterial dissolution and death. 
 2. Ozone toxicity, corrosion and safety interpretation 
 Ozone is a non-toxic safe gas. When it comes to its toxicity, it is mainly its strong oxidizing ability. When the concentration is higher than 1.5ppm, the personnel must leave the site because ozone stimulates the human respiratory system and causes respiratory stress. The reaction, which can cause serious reversible damage, for this reason, the Ozone Industry Association sets health standards: 
 International Ozone Association: 0.1ppm, 10 hours of exposure 
 United States: 0.1ppm, contact for 8 hours 
 Germany, France, Japan and other countries: 0.1ppm, contact for 10 hours 
 China: 0.15ppm, contact for 8 hours 
 The above is a safety and hygiene standard for people in an ozonized gas environment, and the product of the concentration and the contact time can be regarded as a reference point. 
 According to the literature, when the concentration of ozone is 0.02ppm, people with sensitive sensation can perceive it. It is called the threshold of sensation. When the concentration is 0.15ppm, it is the threshold of olfactory. Most people can smell it and it is also the standard of hygiene. When the concentration reaches 1-10ppm, it is called the stimulation range, and when it is 10ppm or more, it is the poisoning limit. 
 In fact, the safe use of ozone can ensure that people's health is not harmful. On the contrary, when breathing ozone below 0.1ppm, it will have health effects on the human body. For more than 100 years since the application of ozone, there has been no death from ozone poisoning in the world. 
 Ozone has a strong oxidizing property. Ozone can oxidize many metals. Aluminum, zinc and lead can cause oxidative corrosion when contacted with ozone, but ferrochrome alloy (stainless steel) containing 25% Cr is basically not corroded by ozone. 
 Ozone also has a corrosive effect on non-metallic materials. Ozone has a great corrosive effect on ordinary rubber, so corrosion-resistant silicone rubber or rubber products with preservatives should be used in the application. 
 Ozone generation is generally carried out using a high-voltage power supply, so it should be eliminated in the presence of conductive gases or hydrocarbon-containing media, and the user must perform it safely in accordance with the operating procedures. 

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